Effects of long workhours on life-style, stress and quality of life among intermediate Japanese managers
Objectives In accordance with international coordination of labor conditions a Japanese campaign advocating less work finally got under way recently in the form of work-reducing policies of the government to prevent occupational and stress-related diseases. However, long workhours among intermediate managers, who are key persons in most organizations in Japanese industry, are still considered to be prevalent. This study was conducted to examine the workhours of intermediate managers and clarify the effects of long workhours on the life-style, subjective stress, and subjective quality of life among them.
Methods Questionnaires were administered concerning workhours, life-styles, subjective stress, and subjective quality of life to 3870 heads of a division or a section and 2666 foremen in 110 firms in Japan.
Results The prevalence of 10 workhours was 69.7% for the divisional or sectional heads and 53.2% for the foremen. Long workhours had significant effects on the managers' life-style, such as sleeping pattern and regularity of daily life and meals. The divisional or sectional managers with long workhours perceived higher stress [odds ratio (OR) 2.51, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.17-2.90] and lower quality of life (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.36) than those who worked relatively short hours. The foremen with long workhours perceived higher stress (OR 2.35, 95% CI 2.01-2.75) and lower quality of life (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.46) than those who worked relatively short hours.
Conclusions Long workhours may be associated with poorer life-style, higher stress, and lower quality of life among managers at the intermediate level.