Original article

Scand J Work Environ Health 1991;17(1):65-74    pdf


Personal monitoring of lead and cadmium exposure--a Swedish study with special reference to methodological aspects.

by Vahter M, Berglund M, Lind B, Jorhem L, Slorach S, Friberg L

Methods for determining personal exposure to lead and cadmium were tested in Stockholm in 1988. Lead and cadmium in breathing-zone air, 24-h duplicate diets, and feces of 15 nonsmoking women (27-46 years of age) were studied. Blood was collected at the beginning of and immediately after the test period (seven consecutive days). An extensive quality assurance program was included. Most technical problems were encountered in the 24-h collection of airborne particles. The pumps were noisy, and the batteries had to be recharged every 6-8 h. The lead and cadmium levels in feces were found to be useful indicators of the total ingested amounts of these metals. Because of the large day-to-day variation in the dietary intake of lead and cadmium, the sampling period for duplicate diets and feces should be at least 5-6 d.