Original article

Scand J Work Environ Health 2023;49(6):405-418    pdf

https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.4102 | Published online: 05 Jul 2023, Issue date: 01 Sep 2023

Parental occupational exposure to solvents and risk of developing testicular germ cell tumors among sons: a French nationwide case-control study (TESTIS study)

by Guth M, Lefevre M, Pilorget C, Coste A, Ahmadi S, Danjou A, Dananché B, Praud D, Koscinski I, Papaxanthos A, Blagosklonov O, Fauque P, Pérol O, Schüz J, Bujan L, Olsson A, Fervers B, Charbotel B; The TESTIS study group

Objectives The etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) is suspected to be related to prenatal environmental risk factors. Some solvents have potential endocrine disrupting or carcinogenic properties and may disrupt male genital development in utero. The aim of this study was to examine the association between parental occupational exposure to solvents and TGCT risk among their offspring.

Methods A French nationwide case–control study, TESTIS included 454 TGCT cases and 670 controls frequency-matched on region and 5-year age strata. Participants were interviewed via telephone and provided information on parental occupations at birth. Job-exposure matrices (JEM) developed in the French Matgéné program were used to assign exposure to five petroleum-based solvents, five solvents or groups of oxygenated solvents, and five chlorinated solvents. Odds ratios (OR) for TGCT and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for TGCT risk factors.

Results Occupational exposure to at least one solvent during the year of their son’s birth was 41% among fathers and 21% among mothers. Paternal exposure to at least one solvent showed OR 0.89 (95% CI 0.68–1.15). Exposure to perchloroethylene (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.55–3.61), methylene chloride (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.54–2.34) and diesel/kerosene/fuel oil (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.80–1.73) disclosed OR >1 but with low precision. Our results suggest a possible modest increase in non-seminoma risk for sons whose fathers were highly exposed to trichloroethylene (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.79–2.63). Maternal exposure to at least one solvent showed OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24). When stratifying by birth year, men born in the 1970s experienced an increased TGCT risk following maternal exposure to fuels and petroleum-based solvents (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.11–6.76).

Conclusion Overall, no solid association was found between parental occupational exposure to solvents and TGCT risk. The association found with maternal occupational exposure to fuels and petroleum solvents among older men needs further investigation.

This article refers to the following text of the Journal: 2018;44(6):658-669
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